A Detailed Review on Porous Microspheres: Methods of Preparation, Characterization, and its Applications

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37285/ijpsn.2023.16.5.7

Authors

  • Sheetal Mane a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:37:"Ph. D, Research Scholar, DAVV, Indore";}
  • Kuldeep Vinchurkar School of Pharmacy, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Takshashila Campus, Khandwa Road [Ring Road] Indore
  • Masheer Ahmed Khan School of Pharmacy, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya (DAVV), Indore.
  • Jitendra Sainy School of Pharmacy, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Takshashila Campus,Indore

Abstract

Porous microspheres are a new kind of carrier with high porosity, uniform porous structure, and pore size with narrow distribution. They are having inter-connective pores present externally and internally which leads to very low mass density and greater specific surface area, making them have excellent adsorption properties. Because of this uniqueness over non-porous microspheres, they are having extensive pharmaceutical applications. Porous microspheres are formulated by several methods, which involve the use of porogens or templating agents for the formation of pores, self-forming pores by particle matrices without any pore-forming agents, and chemical synthesis. These microspheres are very promising in varied fields of medicine such as enhancing of dissolution of poorly soluble drugs, developing novel drug delivery systems, and improving the functional properties of drug-loaded particles. The main factor governing their applications depends on the pore structure and porosity. Therefore, this review aims at emphasizing the principles underlying the development and evaluation of porous microspheres as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system and becomes an informative reference that can be beneficial for several interested research scholars.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Keywords:

Porous, Microspheres, Porogens, Porosity

Published

2023-09-15

How to Cite

1.
Mane S, Vinchurkar K, Khan MA, Sainy J. A Detailed Review on Porous Microspheres: Methods of Preparation, Characterization, and its Applications. Scopus Indexed [Internet]. 2023 Sep. 15 [cited 2024 Feb. 26];16(5):6980-98. Available from: https://ijpsnonline.com/index.php/ijpsn/article/view/2614

References

Singh C, Virmani T, Virmani R. Porous Microsphere and its Significances. 4 (2015).

Rajkumar M, Bhise SB. Carbamazepine-Loaded Porous Microspheres for Short-Term Sustained Drug Delivery. J Young Pharm. 2010; 2:7–14.

Ghosh Dastidar D, Saha S, Chowdhury M. Porous microspheres: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in pharmaceutical & medical fields. Int J Pharm. 2018;548:34–48.

Yuan W, Cai Y, Chen Y, Hong X, Liu Z. Porous microsphere and its applications. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013;1111. doi:10.2147/IJN.S41271.

Zhou M, Shen L, Lin X, Hong Y, Feng Y. Design and pharmaceutical applications of porous particles. RSC Adv. 2017; 7: 39490–39501.

Fan J-B, Huang C, Jiang L, Wang S. Nanoporous microspheres: from controllable synthesis to healthcare applications. J Mater Chem B. 2013; 1: 2222.

Vinchurkar K, Mane S, Balekar N, Jain DK. Formulation and evaluation of tablets containing artemether microspheres and lumefantrine. J Drug Deliv. 2017; 7: 4-7.

Shi X-D, Sun P-J, Gan Z-H. Preparation of Porous Polylactide Microspheres and Their Application in Tissue Engineering. Chin J Polym Sci. 2018; 36: 712–719.

Yuan C, et al. Highly Selective Lithium Ion Adsorbents: Polymeric Porous Microsphere with Crown Ether Groups. Trans Tianjin Univ. 2019; 25: 101–109.

Bai F, Huang B, Yang X, Huang W. Synthesis of monodisperse porous poly(divinylbenzene) micro-spheres by distillation–precipitation polymerization. Polymer. 2007; 48: 3641–3649.

Cong H, et al. Preparation of morphology-controllable PGMA-DVB microspheres by introducing Span 80 into seed emulsion polymerization. RSC Adv. 2018; 8: 2593–2598.

Yu B, et al. The Effect of Different Porogens on Porous PMMA Microspheres by Seed Swelling Polymerization and Its Application in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Materials. 2018; 11: 705.

Wang Y, Shi X, Ren L, Wang C, Wang D-A. Porous poly (lactic-co-glycolide) microsphere sintered scaffolds for tissue repair applications. Mater Sci Eng C. 2009; 29: 2502–2507.

Ghosh Dastidar D, Saha S, Chowdhury M. Porous microspheres: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in pharmaceutical & medical fields. Int J Pharm. 2018; 548: 34–48.

Bibby A, Mercier L. Mercury(II) Ion Adsorption Behavior in Thiol-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Microspheres. Chem Mater. 2002; 14: 1591–1597.

Guo X, Hao G, Xie Y, Cai W, Yang H. Preparation of porous zirconia microspheres via emulsion method combined with phase separation. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol. 2015; 76: 651–657.

Sun R, Lu Y. Fabrication and characterization of porous hydroxyapatite microspheres by spray-drying method. Front Mater Sci China. 2008; 2: 95–98.

Agrawal GR, Wakte P, Shelke S. Formulation, physicochemical characterization and in vitro evaluation of human insulin-loaded microspheres as potential oral carrier. Prog Biomater. 2017; 6: 125–136.

Bhise SB. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Rifampicin Loaded Porous Microspheres. Sci Pharm. 2010; 78: 291–302.

Pandya N, Pandya M, Bhaskar V H. Preparation and in vitro Characterization of Porous Carrier-Based Glipizide Floating Microspheres for Gastric Delivery. J Young Pharm. 2011; 3: 97–104.

Paul W, Sharma C P. Development of porous spherical hydroxyapatite granules: application towards protein delivery. [Year not provided].

Amoyav B, Benny O. Microfluidic Based Fabrication and Characterization of Highly Porous Polymeric Microspheres. Polymers. 2019; 11: 419.

Sameni J, Krigstin S, Sain M. Effect of Preparation Parameters on the Formation of Lignin Acetate Microspheres. 2015; 4: 12.

Yu M, Zhou K, Zhang F, Zhang D. Porous HA microspheres as drug delivery: Effects of porosity and pore structure on drug loading and in vitro release. Ceram Int. 2014; 40: 12617–12621.

Kim T, Yoon J, Lee D, Park T. Gas foamed open porous biodegradable polymeric microspheres. Biomaterials. 2006; 27: 152–159.

Qutachi O, et al. Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature. Acta Biomater. 2014; 10: 5090–5098.

Wu L, Bai S, Sun Y. Development of Rigid Bidisperse Porous Microspheres for High-Speed Protein Chromatography. Biotechnol Prog. 2008; 19: 1300–1306.

Zhu L, Li M, Liu X, Jin Y. Drug-Loaded PLGA Electrospraying Porous Microspheres for the Local Therapy of Primary Lung Cancer via Pulmonary Delivery. ACS Omega. 2017; 2: 2273–2279.