Targeting Potential of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Finasteride-loaded Nano Lipidic Carriers-infused Topical Gel - In vitro and In vivo Skin Permeation Studies



  • Shweta Ramkar University Institute of Pharmacy Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur C.G. India-492010
  • Preeti Suresh University Institute of Pharmacy Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur


Background: There is an unmet clinical need to develop topical carriers for finasteride to reduce its systemic side effects in the treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA). Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have also emerged as an influential agent in hair biology. 

Aim: The main focus of the work was to develop a novel formulation to explore the potential of ZnO nanoparticles in combination with NLCs of finasteride (FIN) for topical delivery.

Method: ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method and were subsequently incorporated within the Carbopol gel. The ZnO nanoparticles and the gel were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics. In vitro release study was performed for the determination of release of the drugs from the gel and ex vivo study was conducted for the determination of penetration of the NLCs and ZnO nanoparticles into the skin.

Result: The particle size of the nanoparticles was found to be 200 nm. The pH, viscosity and spreadability of the gel was observed to be 6.13±2.11, 35,845.3±6.97 cps at 5 rpm and 17.14±2.32 respectively. Ex vivo drug permeation and skin distribution studies of the NLC gel formulations carried on rat dorsal skin indicated 25.763±0.2 μg/cm² and 19.375±1.2 μg/cm² of FIN and ZnO in 12 hr respectively.

Conclusion: The results indicated the potential of developed systems for topical drug delivery for treatment of androgenic alopecia.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Metal nanoparticles, drug delivery, nanostructured lipid carriers, alopecia, hair



How to Cite

Ramkar S, Suresh P. Targeting Potential of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Finasteride-loaded Nano Lipidic Carriers-infused Topical Gel - In vitro and In vivo Skin Permeation Studies. Scopus Indexed [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 15 [cited 2024 Apr. 20];16(6):7030-7. Available from:



Research Articles


Oh JW, Kloepper J, Langan EA, Kim Y, Yeo J, Kim MJ, et al. A guide to studying human hair follicle cycling in vivo. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2016;136(1):34–44.

El-Esawy FM, Hussein MS, Ibrahim Mansour A. Serum biotin and zinc in male androgenetic alopecia. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 2019;18(5):1546–9.

Luana AFA, Ushirobira CY, Barbosa DPP, Souza PEN De, Leles MIG, Cunha-filho M, et al. Novel iron oxide nanocarriers loading finasteride or dutasteride: Enhanced skin penetration for topical treatment of alopecia. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2020;587(May):1–10.

Rushton DH. Nutritional factors and hair loss. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology. 2002;27(5):396–404.

Deshwali Sanjay, Kare Pawan Kumar, Agrawal B.K. AA. Study of serum zinc, copper and ferritin levels in alopecia patients. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences. 2015;2(7):12–20.

Slominski A, Wortsman ÃJ, Plonka PM, Schallreuter KU, Paus R, Tobin DJ. Hair Follicle Pigmentation. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2004;(124):13–21.

Abdel Fattah NSA, Atef MM, Al-Qaradaghi SMQ. Evaluation of serum zinc level in patients with newly diagnosed and resistant alopecia areata. International Journal of Dermatology. 2016;55(1):24–9.

Jiang J, Pi J, Cai J. The Advancing of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications. Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications. 2018;18.

Leite-Silva VR, Lamer M Le, Sanchez WY, Liu DC, Sanchez WH, Morrow I, et al. The effect of formulation on the penetration of coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles into the viable epidermis of human skin in vivo. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 2013;84(2):297–308.

Srivastava V, Gusain D, Sharma YC. Synthesis, characterization and application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (n-ZnO). Ceramics International. 2013;39(8):9803–8.

McElwee KJ, Shapiro JS. Promising therapies for treating and/or preventing androgenic alopecia. Skin therapy letter. 2012;17(6):1–4.

Kaufman KD, Olsen EA, Whiting D, Savin R, Devillez R, Bergfeld W, et al. Finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1998;39:578–89.

Vaseem M, Umar A, Hahn Y. ZnO nanoparticles: Growth, Properties, and Applications. Vol. 5, Metal Oxide Nanostructures and Their Applications. 2010. 1–36.

Pardeike J, Hommoss A, Müller RH. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2009;366(1–2):170–84.

Yazdani-Arazi SN, Ghanbarzadeh S, Adibkia K, Kouhsoltani M, Hamishehkar H. Histological evaluation of follicular delivery of arginine via nanostructured lipid carriers: a novel potential approach for the treatment of alopecia. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology. 2017;45(7):1379–87.

Cevc G, Blume G. New, highly efficient formulation of diclofenac for the topical, transdermal administration in ultradeformable drug carriers, Transfersomes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes. 2001;1514(2):191–205.

Wang W, Chen L, Huang X, Shao A. Preparation and Characterization of Minoxidil Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. 2017;18(2):509–16.

Das S, Chaudhury A. Recent advances in lipid nanoparticle formulations with solid matrix for oral drug delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011;12(1):62–76.

Girigoswami K, Viswanathan M, Murugesan R, Girigoswami A. Studies on polymer-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles: UV-blocking efficacy and in vivo toxicity. Materials Science and Engineering C. 2015;56:501–10.

Id IC, Yasir M, Verma M, Singh AP. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers : A Groundbreaking Approach for Transdermal Drug Delivery. Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2020;10(2):150–65.

Shamma RN, Aburahma MH. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2014;9:5449–60.

Balakrishnan P, Shanmugam S, Lee WS, Lee WM, Kim JO, Oh DH, et al. Formulation and in vitro assessment of minoxidil niosomes for enhanced skin delivery. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2009;377(1–2):1–8.

Sethuraman N, Shanmuganathan S, Sandhya K, Anbarasan B. Design, development and characterization of nano structured lipid carrier for topical delivery of aceclofenac. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research. 2018;52(4):581–6.

Loo CH, Basri M, Ismail R, Lau HLN, Tejo BA, Kanthimathi MS, et al. Effect of compositions in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) on skin hydration and occlusion. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2013;8:13–22.

Sandeep DS, Mahitha M, Meghna S. Development, Characterization, and In vitro Evaluation of Aceclofenac Emulgel. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2020;14(3):330.

Madheswaran T, Baskaran R, Thapa RK, Rhyu JY, Choi HY, Kim JO, et al. Design and in vitro evaluation of finasteride-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles for topical delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2013;14(1):45–52.

Dokka S, Cooper SR, Kelly S, Hardee GE, Karras JG. Dermal delivery of topically applied oligonucleotides via follicular transport in mouse skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2005;124(5):971–5.

Eroğlu İ, Azizoğlu E, Özyazıcı M, Nenni M, Gürer Orhan H, Özbal S, et al. Effective topical delivery systems for corticosteroids: dermatological and histological evaluations. Drug Delivery. 2016;23(5):1502–13.

Mahmoud NN, Alkilany AM, Dietrich D, Karst U, Al-Bakri AG, Khalil EA. Preferential accumulation of gold nanorods into human skin hair follicles: Effect of nanoparticle surface chemistry. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2017;503:95–102.

Sturikova H, Krystofova O, Huska D, Adam V. Zinc, zinc nanoparticles and plants. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2018;349:101–10.