A Review on Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles Using Natural Gums




  • Neeraj Rani Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chaudhary Bansi Lal University, Bhiwani (HR), India
  • Sanjeev Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chaudhary Bansi Lal University, Bhiwani (HR), India
  • Sachin Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chaudhary Bansi Lal University, Bhiwani (HR), India
  • Sukender Kumar Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chaudhary Bansi Lal University, Bhiwani (HR), India.
  • Sonia Narwal Department of Pharmacy, Panipat Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pattikaliyana, Panipat
  • Rakesh Redu Geeta Institute of Pharmacy, Geeta University, Naultha, Panipat (HR), India.


The nanoparticles due to their nano-size can convey the drug at nanoscales and distribute it to the targeted site in a required design. Their specialized mechanism of uptake enables the enhanced bioavailability of a drug. The formulation of nanoparticles may be done using synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural polymers. Synthetic polymers employed for the development of nanoparticles can cause toxicity but the use of natural polymers can facilitate a non-toxic process for the synthesis. It is a recent trend to use natural materials in place of synthetic ones. Natural gums can be employed as natural reducing and capping agents for just nanotechnology production, and they may indirectly or directly impact the formulation's release and absorption rates. In other cases, they can have a medicinal synergic application to nano-formulations. The involvement of polymers to formulate the nanoparticles is contingent on their physical and chemical properties and the drug to be loaded. Natural gums act as an excellent template for drug loading and may be used as nanoparticles for controlled release properties. This review tried to give light on various natural gums that can be utilized for the synthesis of nanoparticles.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Nanotechnology, nanoparticles, natural gum, antibacterial, autoclaving, synthesis



How to Cite

Rani N, Sanjeev, Sachin, Kumar S, Sonia Narwal, Rakesh Redu. A Review on Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles Using Natural Gums. Scopus Indexed [Internet]. 2024 Mar. 31 [cited 2024 May 20];17(2):7299-312. Available from: https://ijpsnonline.com/index.php/ijpsn/article/view/3787



Review Articles


Deep A, Rani N, Kumar A, Nandal R, Sharma PC, Sharma AK. Prospective of natural gum nanoparticulate against cardiovascular disorders. Current Chemical Biology. 2019 Dec 1;13(3):197-211

Liu Z, Jiao Y, Wang Y, Zhou C, Zhang Z. Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2008 Dec 14;60(15):1650-62.

Anwunobi AP, Emeje MO. Recent applications of natural polymers in nanodrug delivery. J Nanomed Nanotechnol. 2011;4(01):2-7.

Yang J, Han S, Zheng H, Dong H, Liu J. Preparation and application of micro/nanoparticles based on natural polysaccharides. Carbohydrate polymers. 2015 Jun 5;123:53-66.

Zharov VP, Kim JW, Curiel DT, Everts M. Self-assembling nanoclusters in living systems: application for integrated photothermal nanodiagnostics and nanotherapy. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. 2005 Dec 1;1(4):326-45.

Panyam J, Labhasetwar V. Biodegradable nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery to cells and tissue. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2003 Feb 24;55(3):329-47.

Patel DB, Patel MM. Natural Excipient in controlled Drug Delivery Systems. J Pharmacy Res. 2009 May;2(5):900-7.

Perepelkin KE. Polymeric materials of the future based on renewable plant resources and biotechnologies: Fibres, films, plastics. Fibre chemistry. 2005 Nov;37(6):417-30.

Dutta RK, Sahu S. Development of diclofenac sodium loaded magnetic nanocarriers of pectin interacted with chitosan for targeted and sustained drug delivery. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2012 Sep 1;97:19-26.

Pandey R, Khuller GK. Polymer based drug delivery systems for mycobacterial infections. Current drug delivery. 2004 Jul 1;1(3):195-201.

Chamarthy SP, Pinal R. Plasticizer concentration and the performance of a diffusion-controlled polymeric drug delivery system. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2008 Dec 10;331(1-2):25-30.

Alonso-Sande M, Teijeiro-Osorio D, Remuñán-López C, Alonso MJ. Glucomannan, a promising polysaccharide for biopharmaceutical purposes. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 2009 June 1;72(2):453-62.

Chaurasia M, Chourasia MK, Jain NK, Jain A, Soni V, Gupta Y, Jain SK. Cross-linked guar gum microspheres: A viable approach for improved delivery of anticancer drugs for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Aaps Pharmscitech. 2006 Sep;7:E143-51.

Shirwaikar A, Shirwaikar A, Prabu SL, Kumar GA. Herbal excipients in novel drug delivery systems. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2008 Jul;70(4):415.

Purohit DK. Nano-lipid carriers for topical application: Current scenario. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics (AJP). 2016 Apr 2;10(1).

Carneiro-da-Cunha MG, Cerqueira MA, Souza BW, Souza MP, Teixeira JA, Vicente AA. Physical properties of edible coatings and films made with a polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale L. Journal of Food Engineering. 2009 Dec 1;95(3):379-85.

Pal SL, Jana U, Manna PK, Mohanta GP, Manavalan R. Nanoparticle: An overview of preparation and characterization. Journal of applied pharmaceutical science. 2011 Aug 30(Issue):228-34.

Sattler KD, editor. Handbook of nanophysics: clusters and fullerenes. CRC press; 2010 Sep 17.

Tomalia DA. Birth of a new macromolecular architecture: dendrimers as quantized building blocks for nanoscale synthetic polymer chemistry. Progress in polymer science. 2005 Mar 1;30(3-4):294-324.

Wiener EC, Auteri FP, Chen JW, Brechbiel MW, Gansow OA, Schneider DS, Belford RL, Clarkson RB, Lauterbur PC. Molecular Dynamics of Ion− Chelate Complexes Attached to Dendrimers. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1996 Aug 21;118(33):7774-82.

Goldberg M, Langer R, Jia X. Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. 2007 Jan 1;18(3):241-68.

Buzea C, Pacheco II, Robbie K. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: sources and toxicity. Biointerphases. 2007 Dec 28;2(4):MR17-71.

Goswami S, Naik S. Natural gums and its pharmaceutical application. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research. 2014;3(1):112-21.

Mudgil D, Barak S, Khatkar BS. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications—a review. Journal of food science and technology. 2014 Mar;51:409-18.

Dürig T, Fassihi R. Guar-based monolithic matrix systems: effect of ionizable and non-ionizable substances and excipients on gel dynamics and release kinetics. Journal of controlled release. 2002 Apr 23;80(1-3):45-56.

Zheng Y, Zhu Y, Tian G, Wang A. In situ generation of silver nanoparticles within crosslinked 3D guar gum networks for catalytic reduction. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2015 Feb 1;73:39-44.

Anjum F, Gul S, Khan MI, Khan MA. Efficient synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using guar gum as stabilizer and their applications as catalyst in reduction reactions and degradation of azo dyes. Green Processing and Synthesis. 2019 Dec 24;9(1):63-76.

Nejatian M, Abbasi S, Azarikia F. Gum Tragacanth: Structure, characteristics and applications in foods. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2020 Oct 1;160:846-60.

Ghayempour S, Montazer M. Ultrasound irradiation based in-situ synthesis of star-like Tragacanth gum/zinc oxide nanoparticles on cotton fabric. Ultrasonics sonochemistry. 2017 Jan 1;34:458-65.

Dmour I, Taha MO. Natural and semisynthetic polymers in pharmaceutical nanotechnology. Organic materials as smart nanocarriers for drug delivery. 2018 Jan 1:35-100.

Munday DL, Cox PJ. Compressed xanthan and karaya gum matrices: hydration, erosion and drug release mechanisms. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2000 Aug 1;203(1-2):179-92.

Amaldoss MJ. Gum-based nanoparticles in cancer therapy. InMicro-and Nanoengineered Gum-Based Biomaterials for Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications 2022 Jan 1 (pp. 183-225). Elsevier.

Padil VV, Černík M. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using gum karaya as a biotemplate and their antibacterial application. International journal of nanomedicine. 2013 Feb 28:889-98.

Venkatesham M, Ayodhya D, Madhusudhan A, Santoshi Kumari A, Veerabhadram G, Girija Mangatayaru K. A novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using gum karaya: characterization, antimicrobial and catalytic activity studies. Journal of Cluster Science. 2014 Mar;25:409-22.

Drioli E, Giorno L, editors. Comprehensive membrane science and engineering. Newnes; 2010 Jul 9.

Muddineti OS, Kumari P, Ajjarapu S, Lakhani PM, Bahl R, Ghosh B, Biswas S. Xanthan gum stabilized PEGylated gold nanoparticles for improved delivery of curcumin in cancer. Nanotechnology. 2016 Jun 27;27(32):325101.

Papagiannopoulos A, Sklapani A. Xanthan-based polysaccharide/protein nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization, encapsulation and stabilization of curcumin. Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications. 2021 Dec 25;2:100075.

Feng Z, Xu J, Ni C. Preparation of redox responsive modified xanthan gum nanoparticles and the drug controlled release. International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials. 2021 Sep 22;70(14):994-1001.

Yan X, Khor E, Lim LY. PEC films prepared from chitosan-alginate coacervates. Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin. 2000 Jul 1;48(7):941-6.

Sungthongjeen S, Pitaksuteepong T, Somsiri A, Sriamornsak P. Studies on pectins as potential hydrogel matrices for controlled-release drug delivery. Drug development and industrial pharmacy. 1999 Jan 1;25(12):1271-6.

Prajapati VD, Jani GK, Moradiya NG, Randeria NP, Nagar BJ. Locust bean gum: A versatile biopolymer. Carbohydrate polymers. 2013 May 15;94(2):814-21.

Braz L, Grenha A, Ferreira D, da Costa AM, Gamazo C, Sarmento B. Chitosan/sulfated locust bean gum nanoparticles: In vitro and in vivo evaluation towards an application in oral immunization. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2017 Mar 1;96:786-97.

Braz L, Grenha A, Corvo MC, Lourenço JP, Ferreira D, Sarmento B, da Costa AM. Synthesis and characterization of Locust Bean Gum derivatives and their application in the production of nanoparticles. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2018 Feb 1;181:974-85.

Lopez-Torrez L, Nigen M, Williams P, Doco T, Sanchez C. Acacia senegal vs. Acacia seyal gums–Part 1: Composition and structure of hyperbranched plant exudates. Food Hydrocolloids. 2015 Oct 1;51:41-53.

Ali I, Ahmed SB, Elhaj BM, Ali HS, Alsubaie A, Almalki AS. Enhanced anticancer activities of curcumin-loaded green gum acacia-based silver nanoparticles against melanoma and breast cancer cells. Applied Nanoscience. 2021 Nov;11:2679-87.

Mohan YM, Raju KM, Sambasivudu K, Singh S, Sreedhar B. Preparation of acacia‐stabilized silver nanoparticles: A green approach. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2007 Dec 5;106(5):3375-81.

Puskuri J, Katukam V, Sashidhar RB. Immunological evaluation of Gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): A tree gum with potential applications in food and pharma industry. Bioactive carbohydrates and dietary fibre. 2017 Jul 1;11:48-52.

Venkateshaiah A, Silvestri D, Ramakrishnan RK, Wacławek S, Padil VV, Černík M, Varma RS. Gum kondagoagu/reduced graphene oxide framed platinum nanoparticles and their catalytic role. Molecules. 2019 Oct 9;24(20):3643.

Kora AJ, Sashidhar RB, Arunachalam J. Gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): a template for the green synthesis and stabilization of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial application. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2010 Oct 15;82(3):670-9.

Deshmukh AS, Setty CM, Badiger AM, Muralikrishna KS. Gum ghatti: A promising polysaccharide for pharmaceutical applications. Carbohydrate polymers. 2012 Jan 15;87(2):980-6.

Puri V, Sharma A, Kumar P, Singh I, Huanbutta K. Synthesis and characterization of thiolated gum ghatti as a novel excipient: development of compression-coated mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone. ACS omega. 2021 Jun 10;6(24):15844-54.

Kora AJ, Beedu SR, Jayaraman A. Size-controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia) and its biological activity. Organic and medicinal chemistry letters. 2012 Dec;2(1):1-0.

Mittal H, Mishra SB. Gum ghatti and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles based nanocomposites for the effective adsorption of rhodamine B. Carbohydrate polymers. 2014 Jan 30;101:1255-64.

Alam MS, Garg A, Pottoo FH, Saifullah MK, Tareq AI, Manzoor O, Mohsin M, Javed MN. Gum ghatti mediated, one pot green synthesis of optimized gold nanoparticles: investigation of process-variables impact using Box-Behnken based statistical design. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2017 Nov 1;104:758-67

Wiley B, Sun Y, Mayers B, Xia Y. Shape‐controlled synthesis of metal nanostructures: the case of silver. Chemistry–A European Journal. 2005 Jan 7;11(2):454-63.

Evanoff DD, Chumanov G. Size-controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. 2. Measurement of extinction, scattering, and absorption cross sections. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2004 Aug 24;108(37):13957-62.

Merga G, Wilson R, Lynn G, Milosavljevic BH, Meisel D. Redox catalysis on “naked” silver nanoparticles. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2007 Aug 23;111(33):12220-6.

Oliveira MM, Ugarte D, Zanchet D, Zarbin AJ. Influence of synthetic parameters on the size, structure, and stability of dodecanethiol-stabilized silver nanoparticles. Journal of colloid and interface science. 2005 Dec 15;292(2):429-35.

Zhou Y, Yu SH, Wang CY, Li XG, Zhu YR, Chen ZY. A novel ultraviolet irradiation photoreduction technique for the preparation of single‐crystal Ag nanorods and Ag dendrites. Advanced Materials. 1999 Jul;11(10):850-2.

Shchukin DG, Radtchenko IL, Sukhorukov GB. Photoinduced reduction of silver inside microscale polyelectrolyte capsules. ChemPhysChem. 2003 Oct 17;4(10):1101-3.

Jin R, Charles Cao Y, Hao E, Métraux GS, Schatz GC, Mirkin CA. Controlling anisotropic nanoparticle growth through plasmon excitation. Nature. 2003 Oct 2;425(6957):487-90.

Abid JP, Wark AW, Brevet PF, Girault HH. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in solution from a silver salt by laser irradiation. Chemical Communications. 2002(7):792-3.

Eustis S, Krylova G, Eremenko A, Smirnova N, Schill AW, El-Sayed M. Growth and fragmentation of silver nanoparticles in their synthesis with a fs laser and CW light by photo-sensitization with benzophenone. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences. 2005 Jan;4:154-9.

Sudeep PK, Kamat PV. Photosensitized growth of silver nanoparticles under visible light irradiation: a mechanistic investigation. Chemistry of materials. 2005 Nov 1;17(22):5404-10.

Zhang L, Yu JC, Yip HY, Li Q, Kwong KW, Xu AW, Wong PK. Ambient light reduction strategy to synthesize silver nanoparticles and silver-coated TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic and bactericidal activities. Langmuir. 2003 Nov 25;19(24):10372-80.

Akele ML, Assefa AG, Alle M. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using gum acacia: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity studies. Int J Green Chem Bioprocess. 2015;5:21-7.

Rani, N, Kumar, S, Kumar,A. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Tamarind Seed Gum as Reducing and Stabilizing Agent. Int J Pharm Res. 2021; 2(13), 2498-2507.

Yin Y, Li ZY, Zhong Z, Gates B, Xia Y, Venkateswaran S. Synthesis and characterization of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles through the Tollens process. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2002;12(3):522-7.

Kvítek L, Prucek R, Panáček A, Novotný R, Hrbáč J, Zbořil R. The influence of complexing agent concentration on particle size in the process of SERS active silver colloid synthesis. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2005;15(10):1099-105.

Panáček A, Kvitek L, Prucek R, Kolář M, Večeřová R, Pizúrová N, Sharma VK, Nevěčná TJ, Zbořil R. Silver colloid nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and their antibacterial activity. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2006 Aug 24;110(33):16248-53.

Song Y, Zhang L, Gan W, Zhou J, Zhang L. Self-assembled micelles based on hydrophobically modified quaternized cellulose for drug delivery. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2011 Apr 1;83(2):313-20.

Kataoka K, Harada A, Nagasaki Y. Block copolymer micelles for drug delivery: design, characterization, and biological significance. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2012 Dec 1;64:37-48.

Kim K, Kwon S, Park JH, Chung H, Jeong SY, Kwon IC, Kim IS. Physicochemical characterizations of self-assembled nanoparticles of glycol chitosan− deoxycholic acid conjugates. Biomacromolecules. 2005 Mar 14;6(2):1154-8.

Park SY, Han DK, Kim SC. Synthesis and Characterization of Star-Shaped PLLA− PEO Block Copolymers with Temperature-Sensitive Sol− Gel Transition Behavior. Macromolecules. 2001 Dec 18;34(26):8821-4.

Tae G, Kornfield JA, Hubbell JA, Lal J. Ordering transitions of fluoroalkyl-ended poly (ethylene glycol): Rheology and SANS. Macromolecules. 2002 May 21;35(11):4448-57.

Whitesides GM, Mathias JP, Seto CT. Molecular self-assembly and nanochemistry: a chemical strategy for the synthesis of nanostructures. Science. 1991 Nov 29;254(5036):1312-9.

Sailaja AK, Amareshwar P. Preparation of gelatine nanoparticles by desolvation technique using acetone as desolvating agent. J. Pharm. Res. 2012 Apr;5:1854-6.

O'Callaghan KA, Kerry JP. Preparation of low-and medium-molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles and their antimicrobial evaluation against a panel of microorganisms, including cheese-derived cultures. Food Control. 2016 Nov 1;69:256-61.

Leonard M, De Boisseson MR, Hubert P, Dalencon F, Dellacherie E. Hydrophobically modified alginate hydrogels as protein carriers with specific controlled release properties. Journal of controlled release. 2004 Aug 27;98(3):395-405.

George M, Abraham TE. Polyionic hydrocolloids for the intestinal delivery of protein drugs: alginate and chitosan—a review. Journal of controlled release. 2006 Aug 10;114(1):1-4.

Sezer AD. Release characteristics of chitosan treated alginate beads: I. Sustained release of a macromolecular drug from chitosan treated alginate beads. Journal of microencapsulation. 1999 Jan 1;16(2):195-203.

Niwa T, Takeuchi H, Hino T, Kunou N, Kawashima Y. Preparations of biodegradable nanospheres of water-soluble and insoluble drugs with D, L-lactide/glycolide copolymer by a novel spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method, and the drug release behavior. Journal of controlled release. 1993 May 27;25(1-2):89-98.

Allouche J. Synthesis of organic and bioorganic nanoparticles: an overview of the preparation methods. Nanomaterials: a danger or a promise?, 2013; 27-74.

Fessi HP, Puisieux F, Devissaguet JP, Ammoury N, Benita S. Nanocapsule formation by interfacial polymer deposition following solvent displacement. International journal of pharmaceutics. 1989 Oct 1;55(1):R1-4..

Dalpiaz A, Vighi E, Pavan B, Leo E. Fabrication via a nonaqueous nanoprecipitation method, characterization and in vitro biological behavior of N6-cyclopentyladenosine-loaded nano-particles. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2009 Nov 1;98(11):4272-84.

Cheng FY, Wang SP, Su CH, Tsai TL, Wu PC, Shieh DB, Chen JH, Hsieh PC, Yeh CS. Stabilizer-free poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for multimodal biomedical probes. Biomaterials. 2008 May 1;29(13):2104-12.

Murakami H, Kobayashi M, Takeuchi H, Kawashima Y. Preparation of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles by modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method. International journal of pharmaceutics. 1999 Oct 5;187(2):143-52.

Nassar T, Rom A, Nyska A, Benita S. Novel double coated nanocapsules for intestinal delivery and enhanced oral bioavailability of tacrolimus, a P-gp substrate drug. Journal of controlled release. 2009 Jan 5;133(1):77-84.

De Assis DN, Mosqueira VC, Vilela JM, Andrade MS, Cardoso VN. Release profiles and morphological characterization by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy of 99mTechnetium-fluconazole nanocapsules. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2008 Feb 12;349(1-2):152-60.

Moinard-Chécot D, Chevalier Y, Briançon S, Beney L, Fessi H. Mechanism of nanocapsules formation by the emulsion–diffusion process. Journal of colloid and interface science. 2008 Jan 15;317(2):458-68.

Blouza IL, Charcosset C, Sfar S, Fessi H. Preparation and characterization of spironolactone-loaded nanocapsules for paediatric use. International journal of pharmaceutics. 2006 Nov 15;325(1-2):124-31.

Ahmed OA, Ahmed OA. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity effect of gum Arabic‐silver nanoparticles. The FASEB Journal. 2022 May;36.